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Published on: 2024-01-03

Role of Water Batteries in Energy Transition and Green Energy Integration in India

India, the fifth-largest global economy, is expected to see a 7 percent GDP growth by 2024. Power, crucial for India’s economic development, has evolved significantly.

GM ( Hydro Engg)Jiban Chandra KakotiGM ( Hydro Engg), NTPC, Noida

1.0 background

India is a rapidly growing nation in the world with a significant scale of transformation over last few decades. It is the fifth largest economy in the world with GDP expected to reach nearly 7% in 2024 with all-round development in infrastructure, industries and raising the living standard of people. Power is the prime mover of economic development of a nation and one of the major infrastructure requirements for industrial, rural, and agricultural development.

India is one of the pioneering countries in Asian continent with history of more than 100 years in establishing hydroelectric power plants. It established first Hydro Power station of 130KW at Sidrapong in Darjeeling, West Bengal way back in 1898 and then Shimsha (Shivan Samudra) power plants in Mysore with capacity of 4.5MW in 1902. Hydro power development received intense attention from the government of India after independence. Its share in energy mix gradually increased and reached over 45% of the total energy mix in sixties, which has now been reduced to just over 11% in 2023. Many countries worldwide endowed with Hydro sources, majorly depend upon the Hydro generation. Norway, Brazil, Venezuela are some of the countries to name. India is endowed with a Hydro power potential of around 148700 MW out of which 51.8 GW has been harnessed till now in form of small and Large Hydro projects. There were many reasons for the slower development of hydropower in the country from the seventies onwards. Public perception created against Hydro project Dams, protest land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement issues, lack of fund and technology, geological surprises, were some of the retarding factors effected hydro projects. In order to promote economic growth of the country, faster addition of electricity was required, for which government policy shifted towards addition of thermal projects mainly the Coal Based Power Plants in the country. Coal based plants today constitute around 56% of the total installed capacity whereas it meets 75% of the country’s energy requirement.

As per the study done for year 2020, the electricity and heat sector is highest producer of India's greenhouse gas emissions which is around 35 percent of the total emission. More than 90 percent of India's power sector emissions mainly the CO2 are produced by coal-fired power plants.

2.0 Power growth trajectory in India

India has been mainly dependent on Coal and oil as the primary source of electricity generation which resulted in high CO2emissions. India ranked third in carbon emission in the world although India’s CO2emissions per person put it near the bottom of the world’s emitters. Considering the energy security concern and commitment for a ‘Low Carbon Growth Strategy’, the Government of India has stressed on sustainable development of the power sector and emphasized on development of renewable sources including Hydro. Presently India’s per capita electricity consumption is 1255 KWh which is one third of the Global average of per capita electricity consumption and one tenth of the per capita consumption in US.

India’s sheer size and its huge target growth means that its energy demand is set to grow by more than that of any other country in the coming decades. In a pathway to net zero emissions by 2070, it is envisaged that most of the energy demand this decade would have to be met with low-carbon energy sources. India as a responsible nation has set the development mission of the country and concurrently promised an Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of energy transition from fossil fuel source to Renewable sources of energy in consonance to restrict the effect of global climate change. India has adopted following 5 mantra popularly known as Panchamrit to achieve the goal of Energy Transition.

  • India will increase its Renewable energy capacity to 500GW by 2030.
  • Reduction in Carbon emission intensity of the GDP by 45% by 2030.
  • 50% of India's energy would come from Non fossil energy sources by 2030.
  • Reduction of Carbon emissions by one billion tonne from now (2005 level) to 2030.
  • Net Zero Carbon emission in India by 2070.

Country has adopted a new model of economic development with clean energy transition that would reduce the carbon footprint in the developmental process.

2.1 Growth of Renewable Energy

Keeping commitment to reduce the carbon footprint, India has been continuously increasing the share of Renewable Energy in energy mix in the country. Variable Renewable Energy generation ( solar and wind) has increased 333% from a 27 GW in 2015 to 116 GW in 2023. As the CEA National Electricity Plan on Energy mix, VRE is going to reach around 486 GW by 2031-32.

Increase in Renewable Energy over the last 9 years from 2015 to 2023 is indicated in Figure-1.0 ( Resource-CEA)


3.0 Requirement of Energy Storage System (Batteries)

Out of 500GW of RE sources as per the INDC, 420GW will be from VRE (Variable Renewable Energy) only comprising of Wind and Solar energy sources which are intermittent in nature depending upon time of the day, dependent on seasons and vagaries of the nature. There is a paradigm change in Indian power system operations with addition of more and more VRE in the Grid as the Grid is going to be fully loaded with generation from VRE by 2030 and beyond. In the past, fully controllable power generation followed non-controllable load demand. Generation from Variable Renewable energy (VRE) sources is no longer fully controllable. Variability in VRE sources due to weather fluctuations means uncertainty in generation output due to sudden addition and withdrawal of generation from VRE. This will result in mismatch of the supply and demand of the VRE generation in the grid rendering surplus power in the grid. The surplus power need to be either consumed or stored in some form of energy storage system, otherwise VRE generation will have to be curtailed. Curtailment of VRE sources i.e wind and solar power is already being witnessed in some states in Southern India where generation from VRE has exceeded 20% of the total energy capacity. With the increasing presence of VRE sources by 2030 and beyond, the need for curtailment will be more acute if there is insufficient energy storage in the grid. Therefore, there is imminent need for energy storage system in the grid.

Among the various Energy Storage technologies available, most matured and domestically available technology is the Pumped Storage Hydro Projects (PSP).

Considering the maturity of technology, life span of the system, cost of the energy over its lifetime, minimum environment impacts in its vicinity, PSP technology is considered to be appropriate for large grid scale application. The Pumped Storage Hydro Projects are also called Water Battery (PSP) to store the energy in form of potential energy. PSPs primarily use indigenous technologies and domestically manufactured materials. Most of the Electrical and Mechanical parts of PSPs are made in India in comparison to electro chemical and chemical batteries which are import dependent. PSPs are clean, green, safe, and non-explosive and don’t produce any poisonous/ harmful by-products or pose disposal problems.

4.0 Water Battery (Pumped Storage Project) concept.

Pumped Storage Project has 2 reservoirs. One is the upper reservoir at higher elevation and a lower reservoir at lower elevation at the outlet of the Tail Race Tunnel. Other civil components have almost similar attributes like a normal Hydro Project. Water is pumped from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir at a higher elevation where it is stored in form of potential energy until needed to be retrieved. The water, when released from the upper reservoir work against gravity to rotate a turbine and generates electricity. In case of PSP, single unit of machine act as Pump as well as Turbine but rotate in reversible directions.

Pumped storage Projects are classified into 3 configurations:

  1. On Stream Pumped Storage Schemes where both reservoirs are located on any perennial river/stream.
  2. Off Stream Pumped Storage Scheme Open Loop, where one of the reservoirs is located on any perennial river/stream.
  3. Off Stream Pumped Storage Scheme Closed Loop, where none of the reservoirs is located on any river/stream.

Pictorial view of three types Pumped Storage Projects is given in Fig-2.0:

Figure 2.0

4.1 Potential of Pumped Storage Projects (Water Batteries) in India

Total Installed capacity of PSPs in India is 4745.60 MW out of which 1440MW are not operational in pumping mode due to issues like construction of lower reservoir, machine vibration issue etc.

India has huge potential of Pumped Storage Projects, which can be developed in coming years. There are 111 PSPs with an installed capacity of 122.77 GW identified till now and many more are under identification. This would require proper engineering planning, site selection, investigation, economic business model, favorable government policies, major investment from Public and private sector. As per the National Electricity Plan, Storage system of around 73.9 GW will be required by 2031-32 out of which 26.6 GW is from PSPs and 47.2 GW from BESS.

Presently 3 projects with installed capacity of 2700MW are under construction and around 43 projects with an installed capacity of 55035MW have been either cleared by CEA for construction or in survey & investigation stage. Many more Pumped Storage Projects are on pipe line for development by several CPSU and Private developers.

4.2 Government support for development of the hydro energy sector including PSPs.

Hydro power development is a capital-intensive venture which need substantial money and time. The projects are mostly located in far places away from the load centers where infrastructure is poorly developed. Developers need to spent huge fund and time for development of the infrastructures and in the process, main objective is deviated from the early completion of the projects. In the process, tariff of the power increase which ultimately burden the consumers.

MOP, GOI has taken several sustainable initiatives for development of the Hydro project in the country which are applicable to Pumped Storage Projects also. Some of them are as given below:

  1. Large Hydro Projects greater than 25 MW projects are declared as Renewable Energy source with benefits applicable to Small Hydro power Projects.
  2. Hydro Purchase Obligation (HPO) is notified as a separate entity within Non - solar Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO)and applicable to all Large Hydro Projects commissioned after March 2019 and untied capacity (without PPA) of the commissioned projects.
  3. Tariff rationalisation measures has been introduced for bringing down hydropower tariff: Project life of Hydro Projects has been increased to 40 years, increasing debt repayment period to 18 years and introducing escalating tariff of 2%.
  4. Budgetary Support for Flood Moderation/ Storage Hydro Electric Projects (HEPs): Budgetary support shall be provided through the budgetary grant of Ministry of Power for Flood Moderation component for Storage HEPS to be set up in future. The value of flood moderation component will be worked by technical agencies, viz., CWC, etc. in accordance with the guidelines.
  5. Budgetary Support to Cost of Enabling Infrastructure, i.e., roads/ bridges shall be provided: Budgetary support shall be provided through the budgetary grant of Ministry of Power for funding enabling infrastructure for hydropower projects i.e. roads / bridges. The limit of this grant for such roads and bridges would be as follows:
    1. a) Rs. 1.5 crore per MW for projects up to 200 MW,
    2. b) Rs. 1.0 crore per MW for projects above 200 MW.
  6. Energy Storage Obligation: Government of lndia has, vide its order dated 22.07.2022, notified the trajectory of Energy Storage Obligation for the distribution companies to ensure the capacities regarding storage as a grid element.
  7. Waiver of ISTS charges for PSPS: ln order to promote the development of PSPs, the waiver of ISTS charges is extended to all those PSPs where construction work is awarded by 30.06.2025. ISTS charges shall be levied on PSPs where construction work is awarded after 30.06.2025 as per the following trajectory:
    Sl noAward of construction workISTS Charges
    101.07.2025 to 30.06.202625% of applicable ISTS charges
    201.07.2026 to 30.06.202750% of applicable ISTS charges
    301.07.2027 to 30.06.202875% of applicable charges
    4From 01.07.2028100% of applicable charges
    1. CEA has reduced the timeline for concurrence of PSPs from 150 days to
      • 50 days for the projects awarded under TBCB, projects developed as IREP, merchant and captive plants
      • 90 days for other PSPs allocated on nomination basis, bidding process.
      • A “Single window clearance cell” is being set up in CEA in order to expedite the concurrence process of DPRs of HEPs/ PSPs.
    1. Rationalization of Environmental Clearances for PSPs
      1. StandalonePSPs are categorized as a separate category under River Valley and Hydroelectric Projects
      2. PSPs including off-stream closed loop shall be appraised based on specific Terms of Reference issued by the Central Government for PSPs i.e. 1 season data/ 2 season data collection for Off stream Closed loop projects/ Off stream open loop projects
      3. PSPs which meet certain criteria specified shall be appraised as B2 category where no EIA/EMP is required irrespective of power generation capacity.
  8. Guideline for development of PSPs has defining transparent procedure for allotment of project sites as under
      • i. On nomination basis to CPSUs and State PSUs
      • ii. Allotment through competitive bidding
      • iii. Allotment through Tariff Based Competitive Bidding (TBCB)
      • iv. Self - identified off-stream Pumped Storage Projects
  9. As per the guideline, allocation of the project may be cancelled if construction doesn’t start within a period of 2 years from the date of allotment.
  10. Monetization of Ancillary services: The appropriate commission to ensure the ancillary services like spinning reserve, reactive support, black start, peaking supply, ramping support, faster start-up, and shutdown are compensated.
  11. The appropriate commission to notify peak and off-peak tariffs to provide pricing signals to peak and baseload plan.
  12. PSPs to be allowed to participate in all market segment of Power exchange including High price segment of Day Ahead Markets (HP-DAM)
  13. 80 % power generated when PSPs operate as conventional hydro (without pumping power) to be offered to home State at rate fixed by CERC.
  14. Inter transferability of idle capacity (contracted) to other interested parties so that resource does not stay idle. The gains may be shared with original beneficiary in the ratio of 50:50.

GOI has extended the safeguard and incentives to promote the Pumped storage Projects in the country.

5.0 Technologies in enhancing the efficiency of hydro energy production.

Usually, the efficiency of the Hydro Turbines are in the range of 90-93%. The efficiency of Hydro generators is 99% and Transformers are in the range of 99.5%. With respect to the electrical components are efficiencies are well high and in sync with the latest developments taking place in the Electrical Sector.

For the Hydro Turbines, CFD, FEM and other computer aided tools are used to further enhance the efficiency of the hydraulic flow path, turbines and their range of operation. The Hydraulic characteristics is also studied using software to reduce hydraulic losses in the system and validated during Model testing of the Turbine.

One area where the efficiency can be increased is by decreasing the auxiliary power Consumption. Currently allowable normative Aux power consumption is 1.2 % for Underground Project and 1.0% for Surface Projects.

This can be further reduced by using Premium Efficiency Class Motors (IE3,4) which increase the efficiency by around 1% over energy efficient motors. By designing and selecting the efficient motors and proper selection of pumps near to the duty point parameters, overall efficiency of the system is improved. Use of LED light indoor and outdoor lighting of the power stations has effectively reduced the auxiliary power consumption of the stations.

VVVF drives used in pumps also increases the efficiency of the system when operating range is wide. For the Pumped Storage Projects, starting equipment (SFC) is added to the list of electrical equipment which incur losses during starting and add to higher auxiliary consumption. Alternate provision of Back-to-Back Starting can reduce the Auxiliary consumption during Starting of PSPs.

Variable Speed Hydro Generators are used to enhance the range of operation at best efficiency point in case the head variation is high and wide range of pump operation is needed.

Hard Coating (HP/HVOF) on the water path of Turbine also maintain the high efficiency of the Turbine by reducing the silt erosion.

6.0 Public-private collaborations in Hydro Sector including PSPs

Due to the high investment cost and long gestation period of the Hydro Projects and the conventional approach taken for development of such large projects, Private participation in development of Hydro Projects has been low. There are very few Hydro Projects who have adopted this model for development.

With the change in approach in development of PSPs, the private developers are showing interest for Public-Private partnership. Many states have framed their PSP policy for promoting this model of development of PSPs.

A public-private partnership (PPP) is a contractual collaboration between a government agency and a private company to finance, build, and operate projects.

  • It addresses the limited funding resources for developing projects/assets by Government by allowing the allocation of public funds for other priorities.
  • It is a mechanism to distribute project risks to both public and private sector.
  • PPP emphasizes Value for Money and focus on reduced costs, better risk allocation, faster implementation, improved services, and possible generation of additional revenue.
  • PPP is geared for both public and private sectors to gain improved efficiency.

The Government of India defined a Public-Private Policy in 2011 as "an arrangement between a statutory / government owned entity on one side and a private sector entity on the other, for the provision of public assets and/or public services".

There are two main types of PPP prevalent in Indian Power Sector

  • Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT)
  • Build-Own-Operate (BOO)

The Main advantage of PPP is that the Risk sharing is well defined and distributed to all the Stakeholders. TBCB (Tariff Based Competitive Bidding), Ultra Mega PPPs, etc are few models which are prevalent in India. In the Power Sector they have certainly accelerated the growth of power addition in India, especially in the Thermal, Renewable and development of Transmission Systems.
For the Hydro Projects with the 50000 MW GoI initiative taken in 2003, initially there was a lot of interest created and many private developers displayed interest in development of the projects. However, with time due to various factors such as long gestation period, uncertainties inherent to the hydro projects, lack of sound financial strength of developers, environmental and socio-political factors, change of law during construction period, lack of support from state governments, the Hydro projects could not take off at the pace which was targeted.
Due to the inherent risks involved in the Construction of Hydro Power projects like unpredictable geology, especially in the Himalayan Region and Northeastern Region, obligatory development of infrastructures, the PPP models such as TBCB, BOO, BOOT never remained sustainable in the Indian Scenario. The Private developers became apprehensive of the uncertainties, change in environmental laws during construction period dampened the enthusiasm and finally many developers squatted over the projects for many years before handing over to other agencies including central sector PSUs.
Tata Power, JSW are some of the private developers who have developed private Hydro Projects in India.
However, approach has taken a new dimension in case of PSPs. Most of the upcoming PSPs are situated in Peninsular India where the Geological, Environmental risks involved are substantially less in comparison to Himalayan Region. Morever, PSPs do not extensively disturb the regional environment as they have smaller project area and significantly lesser footprint as compared to similar scale Hydro projects. Hence the models such as BOOT, TBCB have been found to be acceptable for the PSPs.
Since the Risks in project construction are foreseeable and substantially less in the PSPs, PPP will help in the capacity addition of Energy Storage in the country. Many private developers like Greenko, Adani, Tata Power, JSW etc. are already on the fray for developing PSPs in PPP mode.

7.0 Digitalization in the hydro energy sector to optimise operations and promote energy conservation.

Digitalization is playing a crucial role in the hydro energy sector, helping optimize operations and promote energy conservation. Here are several ways in which digital technologies are being leveraged in the Hydro energy sector:

  1. Remote Operation & Monitoring Systems:
    Remote operation & Monitoring: Digital sensors and monitoring systems enable real-time data collection from hydroelectric plants. This data includes information on water levels, turbine performance, and overall plant health. Remote operation of a single Hydro power plant or a cluster of hydropower plants is now possible from a Centralized Control room located at a suitable location. MPLS based network utilizing leased lines available through Power grid with redundancy and adequate reliability is generally used for this purpose. The same was demonstrated for Koldam in NTPC from Scope complex at Delhi. The high speed fiber optic based connectivity provides sufficient bandwidth for real time monitoring of the hydroelectric plants along with their operation.
    Predictive Maintenance: Advanced analytics and machine learning algorithms are increasingly being used to analyze the collected data to predict equipment failures and schedule maintenance activities proactively, reducing downtime and optimizing maintenance costs.
  2. Automation and Control Systems:
    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems: These systems provide centralized control and monitoring of hydroelectric plants, allowing operators to adjust parameters for optimal energy production. With time there has been tremendous improvement in the technologies of the SCADA system making them fault tolerant, robust and easy to interface with other digital systems through industry standard digital protocols which has increased the importance of these systems manifolds.
  3. Hydro Electric Plant Modelling for Advanced Asset Management:
    Digital Twin Technology:
    Digital twins are virtual replicas of physical assets, processes, or systems that can be used to simulate, predict, and optimize their real-world counterparts. Very Powerful digital twins of Hydro Electric plants can be created that simulate the physical plant and its behaviour. This allows for scenario testing and optimization without impacting actual operations. There are many examples of Digital Twin Technology in Hydro sector. Some of the most significant ones are as follows:
    • The Hydro Efficiency Analysis (HydEA) Platform:HydEA (from Enel Green Power, Italy) is a platform where an algorithm analyzes the behavior of the plant and produces a reference model of the performance characteristics of the generation units. This allows the real-time detection of deviations from the expected values, allowing engineers to immediately deal with anomalies that would reduce the efficiency, for example, a less-than-optimal rotational speed or Guide Vane opening.
    • The Hydro-Clone Digital Twin Technology: The Hydro-Clone is an innovative Real-Time Simulation Monitoring System (RTSM) by Power Vision Engineering, Switzerland. It is a digital model of a hydropower plant that can reproduce in real-time any dynamic behaviour of the installation based on boundary conditions measuredin situ. Hydro-Clone diagnoses the health of the plant through numerical cloning of the major hydraulic and electrical components. The system handles the tasks of real-time acquisition and transfer of the measured boundary conditions and quantities to the model, data processing, and diagnosis of the power plant health. The Hydro-Clone system has been implemented and tested since 2014 at the 200 MW La Batiaz power plant at Switzerland and has been operating continuously for more than 5 years.
  4. Hydrological Modelling and Forecasting:
    Advanced weather and water flow forecasting models enable operators to anticipate changes in water availability, helping optimize energy production and reservoir management. Hydrological models make use of rainfall runoff models based on AWS (Automatic Weather Stations) installed at the different locations in the catchment area of the Hydro Power projects. Currently a Hydrodynamic flood model of the various rivers attributing to water flow at TVHPP has been prepared for modelling inundation during high flow conditions. Hydrological models are very useful for load forecasting and optimizing generation.
  5. Energy Storage Integration:
    These days the concept is to create IREPs (Integrated Renewable Energy Plants) which constitute Solar, Wind and PSP and optimize the generation from VRE, storage in PSPs and supply to the grid as and when required. During the non-peak hours when demand is less, energy is stored in terms of Pumped Storage and during high demand this stored energy is provided back to the grid.
    Smart Energy Storage Systems are making use of Digital technologies which help integrate Pumped Storage Projects with Solar and Wind based generating units allowing for better management of intermittent energy generation and enhancing grid stability.
  6. Optimization Algorithms:
    Machine Learning for Energy Optimization: Digitalization requires establishment of an IIoT infrastructure based on a robust fault tolerant Wireless network in order to ingest huge volumes of sensor data. This data is required to be analyzed and assessed for deriving value out of data. Advanced Machine Learning and Deep Learning algorithms are being used to analyze historical data to identify patterns and optimize energy production based on changing environmental conditions, energy demand, and market prices. Even the Hydrodynamic and Hydrological models which are traditionally physics based are increasingly using Machine learning and Deep learning to improve accuracy and better analyze historical data.
  7. Cybersecurity Measures:
    Secure Communication Networks: With increased digital connectivity, ensuring the cybersecurity of critical infrastructure is paramount. Robust cybersecurity measures help protect Hydro Electric plants from potential cyber threats and attacks.
  8. Remote Operation and Maintenance of project structure:
    Drones and Robotics: Drones and robotic systems equipped with cameras and sensors can be used for remote inspection of hydroelectric infrastructure like Dam, catchment area and other remote structures which are otherwise generally inaccessible or very difficult to reach. These technologies reduce the need for manual inspections in challenging environments. Further advanced robotic solutions are proving very handy in managing regular maintenance jobs in these inaccessible and challenging zones without requiring major shutdowns and thus increasing overall plant availability.
  9. Data Analytics for Efficiency Improvement:
    Big Data Analytics: The use of IIoT clubbed with wireless infrastructure has led to virtually obtain almost all information associated with the Hydropower plants at a central location. Such a huge volume of data is processed through structured and unstructured databases via professionally designed software pipelines making use of Big Data Processing and Analytics. Analyzing large datasets allows operators to identify opportunities for improving efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing energy production. Dashboarding of obtained data with dynamic update feature has become a major feature of Management Information Systems.
  10. Early Warning Systems in Hydro Power Projects along with Continuous monitoring of Catchment area:
    Hydro projects located in high reaches and close proximity to glaciers and glacial lakes are increasingly becoming vulnerable to natural calamities and disasters leading to immense loss of life, property and damage to the project. Digitalization and modern technologies have come in handy and are helping in conceptualizing and implementing comprehensive early warning systems in Hydro power projects. NTPC is in a process to implement similar solutions.
    By leveraging these digital technologies, the hydro energy sector can achieve higher efficiency, reduce operational costs, and contribute to overall energy conservation and sustainability. The integration of digital solutions also helps hydroelectric plants adapt to changing environmental conditions and regulatory requirements.

8.0 NTPC contribution to the Hydro power sector in the coming years

NTPC made a humble beginning in Hydro Sector in 2000 by undertaking execution of Koldam HPP with an installed capacity of 800MW in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh. The plant has been in successful operation since 2015.
Tapovan Vishnugad HPP with an installed capacity of 520MW in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand is under execution and over 60% % of the works are completed. Rammam-III HPP with an installed capacity of 120MW in Darjeeling district of West Bengal is also under construction execution and likely to be completed by 2026.
Besides the above, NTPC has acquired THDC and NEEPCO as the subsidiary companies who have reasonable presence in Hydro sector. THDC has an installed capacity of 1424 MW of Hydro Projects and NEEPCO of 1525 MW of Hydro Projects.
Besides the above, NTPC is actively pursuing the Pumped Storage Projects in order to facilitate Renewable Energy integration. MOP, GOI has indicated 9 PSPs with an installed capacity of 11550MW in the states of Tamil nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh for development. Discussion on allocation of the projects in Tamil nadu and Maharashtra are in advanced stage. Further, NTPC has also self-identified PSPs in the states of Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Meghalaya.
NTPC plans to add around 6000MW of PSPs by 2030 and develop either through 100% ownership or Joint Venture partnership with state governments.

9.0 Conclusion

Water is one of the cleanest Renewable Energy sources. Water Batteries (PSPs) have many positive attributes as comparison to other available storage systems. It is a mature technology and majority of the components are indigenously available in India greatly meeting the country’s vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat. Accomplishment of the targeted capacity by 2030 to meet the grid stability is challenge. Government policies on Hydro and new guidelines for the PSPs which have now been issued by MOP, Govt. of India is going to create a new horizon in this area and give impetus to the continued effort to develop the PSPs in various states in the country.
Market Reforms and monetizing the ancillary services available out of the PSPs are going to the advantage of the projects and compensate the higher tariff computed due to addition of extra component of Pumping Energy. Such initiatives from the governments and regulators will encourage for development of more Pumped Storage Projects.
Imbalance in percentage of VRE plant capacity is already witnessed in the grid. Addition of the Pumped Storage Projects will relieve the grid operators to provide stability in the grid and maintain peak demand to ensure quality power to the customers.


  1. Publication in Times of India
  2. CEA reports on Optimal Generation Capacity mix for 2029-30
  3. Statista 2023
  4. Journal of Business Management & Social Sciences Research (JBM&SSR) ISSN No: 2319-5614 Volume 4, No.2, February 2015
  5. Blog link: https://www.waterpowermagazine.com/features/featurehydropower-embraces-digitalisation-7842379/
  6. https://www.hydropower.org/blog/blog-digitisation-is-transforming-hydropower-operations-and-maintenance
  7. https://tractebel-blog.com/2020/06/24/what-does-digitalisation-really-do-for-hydropower/
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